Global food security can be achieved only through closure of yield gaps between the North and the South of the world. Fertilizers are key chemicals to achieve that goal. However, a key challenge is that fertilizers are generally expensive in the South of the world, due to either energy-intensive processing technologies or transport cost. As an example, raw materials are generally located away from places where the fertilizer is being used, increasing the cost of the final product at the farmer’s gate. The current fertilizer landscape sees additional important issues such as environmental pollution (e.g., eutrophication and U from apatite), and challenges in establishing effective guidelines under a set of crops, agricultural practices and changing climatic conditions so that nutrient management remains an important issue for agriculture. Advancing the knowledge of fertilizers based on nutrient-bearing silicate resources available throughout the globe will tremendously improve the quality and the supply of food. Green, affordable and efficient fertilizers for a healthy and food-secure world can be developed from these silicates.